Month: August 2019

Banking Technology Core Banking Solutions Vs. Pricing And Billing Solutions

Banks have started realizing the importance of pricing as a banking enterprise entity. Core banking solutions fit well as technology solutions for banks’ day-to-day business.

However, the core banking solution itself cannot cater to all the fee-income needs of a bank. This is attributable to the complex nature of each bank with regard to its independent departments or business silos and their disparate systems. Over a period of time, what results is a severe inability to visualize the fee income or pricing of charges at the enterprise level.

How a Core Banking Solution Works
A core banking solution, often referred to as a CBS, typically has a GL subsystem at its core with plug-in satellite modules catering to the various divisions of the bank. The satellite modules, referred to as “modules,” cater to the business functionalities of the various lines of business of the bank. Typical CBS modules include but are not limited to:

Non-financial modules:

Customer definition and accounts
Customer limits definition, lines of credit, a central bank reporting structure
Messaging and advice
End-of-day processing modules, etc.

Financial modules:

Loans, deposits, money markets
Letters of credits and bills
Liquidity management
Local payments and cross-border
Nostro reconciliations
Interest and charge definitions, etc.

Each silo or line of business employs one or more of these modules to run its business. The modules are used to create contracts with customers at the branch level for various products. For example, a short-term, fixed-rate loan contract for the account of a large corporate customer has multiple components associated with it, such as the contract-principal component, tax component, interest component, product-preference component,
charge component, etc.

Transactions are generated at the component level during various events of the contract life cycle, such as contract initiation, booking, accrual, liquidation, rollover, advice generation, contract cancellation, etc. Such dollar (or any other currency) transactions hit the accounting and GL subsystem at the core. Thus, the core GL and accounting system ties the various silos together.

As we have seen, the CBS and its modules are used by the lines of business to manage customer contracts and their life cycles as well as most income classified as non-fee income.

Core Banking and Fee Income

The modules in a CBS have a charge component associated with a customer contract that allows the bank to charge fees. This charge component can generate transactions during various events. The charges, however, are only basic charges that could be required at an account-contract level.

In practice, there are multiple other fees and charge components that banks capture using multiple fringe systems in each silo.

The Limitations of Core Banking Solutions for Fee-Based Income

Fee-based income plays a significant role in the overall profitability of a bank. Limitations on the growth of traditional spread-based income have only led to an increase in the weight of fee-based income.

Hence, banks are looking for a way to view charge income at the enterprise level-i.e., a single-customer view of all of a bank’s fee-based income. This means there is a need for the ability to develop enterprise-level pricing strategies, charge the customer at the relationship level, give a bundled fee offering to the customer, etc. A CBS and its modules are not designed to cater to a need for enterprise-wide pricing and billing.


A core banking solution is mainly used to manage the spread-based income of a bank. The fact that the fee income of a bank is a key differentiator in terms of profitability only increases its importance in the current scenario.

Having an enterprise entity and pricing strategy is important to the fee-based income of a bank. A pricing and billing solution helps manage the fee income of a bank by providing a single-customer view of all charges across the bank’s product silos. A pricing and billing solution, hence, brings to the table a unique value addition to a bank by helping it maximize its fee income.
– BankingCrossing

Be Prepared With A Home Loan Eligibility Calculator

All of us plan to buy a home at some point in our lives. That symbol for family, success and safety is a human emotion that all of us should experience and is something all of us desire. Most of us cant pay for the dream home at the point of purchase and a home loan comes into the picture. But we have to make sure that this finance option is thought through thoroughly and make the decision only after careful consideration. A home loan eligibility calculator can make the decision much easier for us. From choosing the home to finding the best housing finance , this tool can be of great help throughout the process. Learn all its benefits and know its purpose to use it to the best advantage.

A home loan eligibility calculator lets you know about the home loan amount that youre eligible for. Based on the criteria you fill in, this tool gives you a figure that the bank or financial institution will allow you to borrow. A guideline to choose your home, this allows you to set an upper limit on the amount that you can spend on the property you wish to buy. This doesnt mean in any way that you have to compromise on your dreams, but instead allows you to find that dream in the perfect financial capacity. To make sure your savings stay stable, use a home loan eligibility calculator and make sure you dont borrow more than what is comfortable for your lifestyle.

This facility is accessible to you even without leaving your home. Being an online tool means that you can use it with just a few clicks of your mouse and have the answers in no time. Just fill in the criteria that the home loan eligibility calculator requires and get your answer without any worries. Remember that the calculator changes from finance company to finance company and its imperative that you dont mix up figures or the units that are being asked. Recheck the fields carefully and only then depend on the value provided to you.

Keep in mind that even after using the home loan eligibility calculator, its important that you speak to a representative from the bank of your choice and confirm the amount. You dont want to make a decision only to realise that youre not being provided with the right service. Use a home loan eligibility calculator and be prepared to choose the best home loan.

Why Should You Enter Into Unsecured Loans with EkpressBank

There are different kinds of loan opportunities in the market, if you are thinking of taking a loan for a specific financial need of yours, you can always take think of getting an unsecured loan in a reputable ekspress bank in the company. Compared to traditional loans, they are not as strict, and you can rely on this option if you have nowhere else to go. Also, to understand things more, here is a more detailed explanation of why it is going to be an awesome idea for you to go into business with an ekspressbank.

You do not have to pay collateral. Most lenders operate by requiring a company to make a collateral to be able to take a loan. In an unsecured loan, you do not have to worry about needing to show some collateral because they are more lenient when it comes to lending, even to people who have maintained bad credits. You can take a loan even if you have done bad business with banks before. As long as you can show them that you have a stable source of income, you should not have any problem.

Speed of approval. Most loan processes take a long time to get approval. You have to go through a needlepoint, to be able to obtain the money you need and if you need it badly, then it will hurt so much. This is not going to be an issue, though, when you decide to take an unsecured loan because you can get approval, in no time, and you do not have to trouble yourself, so much.

If you need money and you need to have it quickly, you can just save yourself from all the trouble of going through the tediousness of a traditional loan. You can cut corners and you can make things easier for yourself by getting an unsecured loan.

JOnes Williams is author of this article on Ekspress Bank. Find more information about EkspressBank.

Introduction To Financial Modeling

Financial modeling in Excel is one of the most versatile and powerful finance skills today. This skill is often a sought-after add-on to well-known financial designations such as CFA, CPA, CA, CMA and CGA. In a nutshell financial modeling is a process of building a multi-year forecast of a companys financial statements: income statement, balance sheet and statement of cash flows. The projected time period varies from one model to the next, the norm being 5 to 10 years.
Why is financial modeling so important? It is used in a variety of finance applications such as investment banking initial public offerings (IPO), secondary financings, mergers and acquisitions (M corporate banking; private equity; venture capital; equity research; corporate strategic planning and budgeting; and numerous other important applications. Below are just a few financial modeling application examples:

An investment banker builds a financial model of a mobile telephony software company that is going through an IPO process. The main outputs of the model will be metrics used in valuation: unlevered free cash flows (UFCF), earnings and net debt calculations. The financial model will be used in discounted cash flow (DCF) valuation. DCF, together with comparable trading and transactions valuation will be used in the companys ultimate valuation. The end goal of this modeling process will be to value the per-share offering price of the companys shares once they are listed on the stock exchange.

A credit-focused financial model is being built by the commercial lending unit of a major bank. This is a part of processing a large commercial loan application filed by a manufacturing company which is looking to expand its operations. The models emphasis is on the debt servicing ability of the company in question. The most important outputs that the commercial bankers will look at are debt to equity ratio, interest coverage and fixed charge coverage ratios.

An equity analyst builds a financial model of a company that his firm decided to initiate coverage on. The focus of the model is on DCF valuation and unlevered free cash flows generated by the company. Based on the models results the analyst will issue buy/sell/hold recommendations on the stock based on the relationship of his target stock price and the current market stock price.

A private equity firm is considering a 50% acquisition of an early stage pharmaceutical company that needs capital for sustaining its research and development (R&D) program. The private equity firm sees value and significant upside in this situation given the target firms pending patent applications. The purpose for building the financial model is to determine the price at which the private equity firm is willing to purchase the 50% stake, given the hurdle IRR (internal rate of return) rate of 35%.

A pulp and paper companys CFO prepares a detailed multi-year budget of the company. She uses Excel financial modeling techniques to achieve her goal. The model will contain a 5-year projection of the companys income statement, balance sheet and cash flow statement and help the company assess future financing, staffing and operational needs. The multi-year budget will be submitted to the company CEO for review.

The financial modeling process is as much an art as it is a science. Solid financial modeling training through seminars and courses is a must for people seeking careers in many finance areas. These skills are further honed and advanced through the real-life work experience of building financial models.

The financial modeling process begins with gathering information. The analyst must become intimately familiar with the company he models, its industry and competitive landscape, its plans and prospects, and the strength of the companys management. Crucial pieces of information are the companys past financial reports, management interviews, conference call transcripts, research analyst reports, and industry publications. It must be noted that this information gathering exercise is much more challenging when modeling a private company as opposed to a public company. Private company information can often only be obtained through direct access to the company insiders.

An typical Excel financial model will consist of the following parts:

Assumptions. These are the models inputs. Assumptions are based on the companys historical information as well as its future plans and current market trends.

Historical and projected financial statements income statement, balance sheet, cash flow statement. Projections are based on historical performance and model assumptions.

Supporting schedules including working capital schedule, capital expenditures (CAPEX) schedule, debt schedule, and tax schedule.

The models outputs depend on the primary purpose for building the model. In many cases modellers focus on earnings, unlevered free cash flows, capital structure and debt capacity.

Scenario and sensitivity analyses are often incorporated into the models, including scenario managers, data tables and charts.

Financial models often serve as foundation for more detailed further analysis such as valuation, M&A merger modelling (accretion/dilution analysis), LBO analysis and Monte Carlo simulations.

So what does it take to be a good financial modeller? Accounting and finance knowledge is compulsory. In-depth understanding of financial statements and relationships between line items of the income statement, balance sheet and the cash flow statement is an absolute must. Microsoft Excel proficiency is another prerequisite. A good modeller not only knows Excel functions, tools and formats, but also is quick and efficient in using Excels numerous keyboard shortcuts. Sometimes it takes years of Excel modeling to become truly proficient at this task.

Some Famous Accounting Scandals

Accounting can be a very high pressure job. Making one small mistake could have devastating frequencies for the finances of a business or individual. Sometimes businesses actively seek to make, what they later claim to be mistakes, leading to accounting scams and scandals – this is a completely different matter.

Through the last few decades alone there have been plenty of accounting scams and scandals to look at. Here are three of the biggest accounting failures of recent years:

The Enron Scandal – A seemingly prosperous energy company founded in Omaha, Nebraska, USA in 1985. The Enron Corporation went bankrupt in 2001 after 16 years in operation. The Enron Scam included many acts of financial corruption including the inflation of revenue and the hiding of debts – both of which lead to the companies demise. Enron executives were also left to face imprisonment after the scandal was revealed. Whilst one of the world biggest accountancy partnerships Arthur Anderson was lead to dissolution because of their role within the misdealing.

The Parmalat Scandal – In 2003, Parmalat were consider the world leaders in UHT Milk production. However, the same year Parmalat S.p.A were forced to collapse owing to a 14bn ($20bn; 13bn) hole in their accounts. There accounting disaster was not only due to misplaced investment, but also non-existent cash funds, fake transactions and hidden debts.

The Waste Management Scam – Before the dissolution of Arthur Anderson in 2001 they were also fined a whopping $7 million for their role in the scandal of Waste Management Inc. It was in 1998 that Waste Management, a Texas company specialising in (you guessed it) waste management service, were revealed to have undergone an accounting scandal. The had made their after-tax profits look higher by augmenting the depreciation length of their plant, property and equipment. They were forced to pay $457 million to settle the legal proceedings, whilst stock prices dropped dramatically and executives were rapidly replaced.